Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development

How group dynamics evolve over time.

This is useful is managing teams, and writing plots involving groups of characters. When groups are formed, they evolve in largely similar ways:

Forming: When the group is being created and everyone is getting to know each other. People are generally excited and pleasant.

Storming: Once everyone gets settled, personality conflicts and differences of opinion create issues within the group.

Norming: Successful teams will manage to fall into a groove as team members play off of each others strengths.

Peforming: Eventually everyone will learn their role and can operate without supervision. When everyone is on the same page, productivity is at its highest.

Adjourning: The project finishes and the team disbands. Sometimes this is accompanied by a sense of loss.